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SCI论文写作需要避免的“中式英语语法错误”

SCI论文写作需要避免的“中式语法错误”

  SCI论文写作需要避免的“中式语法错误”。中国人写外文,难免会习惯使用中式思维,中式英语。在SCI论文写作中,我们经常会犯的15中语法错误,估计很多点,你一听会恍然大悟:

  1.主语和谓语的单数和复数要一致

  英语中名词有它的单数和复数形式,动词也有它的单数和复数形式 , 二者要一致 . 单数主语 ( subject) 名词要用动词 (verb) 的单数 (singular) 形式 , 复数主语名词要用动词的复数 (plural) 形式 . 我们写中文的不太习惯英语的这种写法 , 很难做到不假思索地配对 , 需要特别留心才能不出错误,特别是当主语名词和动词被分开时。

  试看下面的例句.

  A high percentage of peptides that are madeof amino acids are present in the sample.

  A high percentage 才是真正的主语,而不是邻近的 amino acids , 所以应该用单数形式。

  宜改为: A highpercentage of peptides that are made of amino acids is present in the sample.

  让事情更复杂的是英语名词被分为不同的种类,其中的一类叫集合名词 .它既可以当单数用词也可以当复数用 .集合名词当整体来讲时是单数,每个成员作为个体时用复数。

  The number of mice in the experiment wasincreased.

  A number of mice have died.

  All of the samples were analyzed.

  All of the safety procedures was strictlyfollowed.

  代词 none 既可以是单数也可以是复数 . 当 none 后面的词是单数时 , 用单数动词. 当 none 后面的词是复数时, 用复数动词.

  None of the information was useful.

  None of the animals were starved.

  描写数量,重量,体积,时间等的词用单数,但如果是分次添加或减少时用复数 .在这个意义上同集合名词类似.

  1.5 ml was added.

  10 gwas added .

  6 hours was the required incubation time.

  5 gwere added stepwise.

  简写的数量单位, 如 mg, ml, s 等, 单数和复数的写法是一样的 , 如1mg, 5mg.

  一些词如 series, type, portion, class, 要用单数形式.

  A series of derivatives of penicillin wasprepared.

  A large portion of the reports is focusedon how to deal with the increased cost.

  Data, criteria, phenomena, media 是复数形式,他们的单数形式分别是datum, criterion, phenomenon, medium.

  2、修饰语同主语名词关系上要一致

  当用 1 ) 动名词 (gerund) , 2) 分词短句(participle) , 3) 不定式短句 (infinitive) 作修饰语时, 修饰语中的动词要同主句中的主语名词关系 上 要 一致.

  科技杂志论文中有这种语法错误的情况较多 . 严格来讲这只是种语法错误,一般不影响对句子的内容的理解,所以很多作者不太注意 . 编辑和阅稿人有时也没有严格要求改正 . 比如下面就是 Nature 杂志 2006 年第 439 卷中的一个例子.

  Using the enhancer GAL4/UAS expressionsystem, short-term memory traces of aversive and appetitive olfactory conditioninghave been assigned to output synapses of subsets of intrinsic neurons of themushroom bodies.

  1)动名词

  After finishing the purification, theactivity of the isolated compound was then studied.

  We or I 是动名词 finishing 形式上的主语,同主句的主语 activity 不一致.

  宜改为: Afterpurification was finished, the activity of the isolated compound was thenstudied.

  或: After finishing the purification, we studied the activity of the isolated compound.

  Treated with the new drug, the bloodcholesterol levels of participants were lowered by an average of 30%.

  宜改为: Treated with the new drug, participants showed an average of 30% decrease in theirblood cholesterol levels.

  2)分词短句

  The iron concentration was determined usingthe Fenton reaction method.

  The iron concentration 同 using the Fenton reaction method 关系上不一致.

  宜改为: The ironconcentration was determined by the Fenton reaction method.

  或: Wedetermined the iron concentration using the Fenton reaction method.

  When measuring the atmospheric level ofcarbon dioxide, air samples from a remote place, such as an island, ispreferred.

  宜改为: When theatmospheric level of carbon dioxide is measured, air samples from a remoteplace, such as an island, is preferred.

  3)不定式短句

  To further investigate the potential roleof biking in causing infertility, an expanded population of biking athletes wassurveyed.

  不定式短语的形式主语是 we or I ,同主句主语 population 不一致.

  宜改为: To further investigate the potential role of biking in causing infertility, wesurveyed an expanded population of biking athletes.

  To confirm the diagnosis, blood test wasordered.

  宜改为: Toconfirm the diagnosis, the doctor ordered blood test.

  3.主语和主语的行动(谓语)在逻辑上要一致

  由于一些中文和英文的表达方式不同,把中文直接翻译成相应的英文会不讲 . 一个经常被引用的语句是 “price is cheap ”. 中文可以说价格便宜 , 但英文只能说价格高或低 . 物品可以说 cheap or expensive. 用中文的表达方式来写英文 , 会出现主语和主语的行动在逻辑上不一致 . 在写一个句子时要注意行动的真正主语名词是什么 . 下面是一些例子.

  The highest antibiotic production wasobtained at 48 h.

  不是 production 而是production yield.

  宜改为: Thehighest antibiotic production yield was obtained at 48 h.

  The scavenging activity for hydroxylradicals was based on Fenton reaction.

  不是 activity 而是assay of activity

  宜改为: Theassay of scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals was based on Fentonreaction.

  The pharmacological compounds of ginsengwere identified.

  药物活性化合物应该是pharmacologically active compounds.

  宜改为: The pharmacologically active compounds of ginseng were identified.

  4、代名词和其代理的先行词要一致

  代名词和其代理的先行词要在人称 ,单数或复数,和性别上一致.一些常见的代词是: he, his ( 阳性单数 ); she, her ( 阴性单数 ); it, its ( 单数 ); they, their, these, those ( 复数 ); that, this ( 单数 ). 比如下面的例句中 , compounds 和 their 一致 , protein 和 it 一致.

  Many related compounds were synthesized andtheir antivirus activities were studied.

  Growth hormone is a protein. It promoteshuman body growth.

  下面的例句中,the 应该用 their 取代.

  The potential antioxidant capacity ofcompound A and compound B could be deduced from the protective effects againstoxidative stresses.

  宜改为: The potential antioxidant capacity of compound A and compound B could be deducedfrom their protective effects against oxidative stresses.

  用代名词时除了要保持一致外,还要避免代理不清的情况出现,以免不清楚它们到底指什么而引起误解.

  The crude sample was dissolved in water andextracted with organic solvent. It was then evaporated to yield the product.

  It 指 organic layer 还是指 water layer? 不明确,最好不用it.

  宜改为:The crudesample was dissolved in water and extracted with organic solvent. The organiclayer was then evaporated to yield the product.

  During meal hormones are released afterwhich blood flow increases in the stomach.

  Which 既可以代表 meal 也可以代表hormones, 容易产生误解.

  宜改为:During meal hormones are released. After their release stomach blood flow increases.

  5、位置的强调作用

  在英语写作中,若要强调某件事情,就把它放在句子的前面 . 中文写作中 , 有关句子的条件 , 时间等的修饰句都是放在前面,而主句总是放在后面 . 而英文中即可以把条件或修饰句放在前面,也可以放在后面 . 放在前面就表示你要强调 修饰句 的条件 . 比如:

  Before the hurricane arrived, most of thepeople have moved out.

  Most of the people have moved out beforethe hurricane arrived.

  在英语中两种位置关系都可以. 前者强调在hurricane 来之前,后者强调 moved out . 而在中文中,只有一种说法,反过来说 ” 大多数人都离开了在 hurricane 来之前 ” 就不对了 . 按中文的位置关系直译成英文 , 往往会不确切 . 同样按英文的位置关系直译成中文也是怪怪的 . 我上小学的孩子回家来喊 “ 我要吃冰激凌今天 , 我没吃好长时间了 ”, 就是英文 “I want ice cream today. I have

  not eaten it for a long time.” 的直接翻译.

  科技写作中,一般还是把主句先写出来,除非你想强调修饰的是条件.

  Through scavenging free radicals,antioxidants play an important role in protecting against complex diseases.

  宜改为:Antioxidants play an important role in protecting against complex diseasesthrough scavenging free radicals.

  In microbial fermentation, phosphorus iscommonly the major growth-limiting nutrient.

  宜改为:Phosphorus is commonly the major growth-limiting nutrient in microbialfermentation.

  主动句中事情的执行者 (作者 )放在前面,有强调事情的执行者 (作者 )的意思 ,而不是要研究的事物 .被动句强调要研究的事物 ,这也是为什么科技论文中被动句用得比较多的原因之一 .

  We studied their effects on cell growth. 强调We.

  Their effects on cell growth were studied. 强调Their effects.

  6、修饰词和被修饰词要邻近

  科技写作要求严谨,明确.为了严格定义一个事物,往往要加上限制性的修饰词或短句.比如描写实验用的 mice 时,一般不会只说 mice ,而是用类似 “NCI-H23 tumor bearing female athymic nude mice” 的描述 . 前面有5个修饰词来定义研究用的mice这时一般把最窄的定义写在最前面,最广的定义写在后面.修饰语要靠近同被修饰的对象. 因修饰语和被修饰的词被隔开,而造成意思混乱的情况很多 . 下面是一些例子.

  Inhibition of Acid B on xanthine oxidasewas also reported.

  Inhibition of 后面应紧跟 xanthine oxidase , 而不是 Acid B, 隔开后句子就很难读.

  宜改为:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by Acid B was also reported.

  The chelating activities for ferrous ion ofthe Acid B were assessed.

  The chelating activities 后面应紧跟 Acid B , 而不是ferrous ion.

  宜改为:The chelating activities of the Acid B for ferrous ion were assessed.

  Reducing power represents the electrondonating capacity, which may serve as a significant indicator of potentialantioxidant activity.

  用 which开头的修饰句,是要修饰 reducing power ,而不是修饰 electron donating capacity ,所以要紧跟在reducing power后面.

  宜改为: Reducing power, which may serve as a significant indicator of potential antioxidant activity, represents the electron donating capacity. 或: Reducing power represents theelectron donating capacity. It may serve as a significant indicator ofpotential antioxidant activity.

  7、主语和谓语在句子中的位置要靠近

  要使句子的可读性强 ,有两个因素特别需要注意 .一是句子的长短要合适 .研究表明一个句子中有 1 3-20 个字时最合适阅读 . 太短的句子有零碎的感觉,而太长的句子读起来有困难。 二是主语和谓语动词要靠近。 如果被隔开太远,就会有被隔离的感觉 , 句子读起来就会比较困难,虽然从语法上来讲是可行的。这主要同人类大脑处理文字信息的过程和方式有关。当人们读到主语时,自然而然地期望知道主语后面的行动 , 也就是结果。在行动 ( 谓语 ) 出现之前 , 读者需要记住主语是什么,同时又要阅读和理解下面的文字,读起来很累 . 就像要屏住呼吸等待要发生的事情 , 只有当谓语出现,知道了主题的行动后,才能呼出这口气。 时间长了自然不舒服。

  Lincomycin , one of the lincosamideantimicrobial agents which was first isolated more than fifty years ago , isused as a major antibiotic for the treatment of diseases caused by mostGram-positive bacteria.

  宜改为:Lincomycin is one of the lincosamide antimicrobial agents which were firstisolated more than fifty years ago. It is used as a major antibiotic for thetreatment of diseases caused by most Gram-positive bacteria.

  8、名词作形容词

  科技写作中经常会用名词来作为形容词使用,如 room temperature, university researchers。当用一个名词来修饰另一个名词时,意义一般都很清楚 . 但当三个名词放在一起,或两个名词前再加一个形容词时,就要小心 . 有的情况下 , 3 个或 3 个以上的名词放在一起,表达的意思很清楚,也是一种很简洁的表达方式 . 如: bloodwhite cell number, prostate cancer patient,BeijingUniversitymedical school student.但有时会有多种讲法 . Top university researchers 可以是 researchers of (only) top university 也可以是 (all) university researchers who are top。多个名词排在一起,即使表达明确,也给拥挤的感觉 . 应避免使用多个名词的修饰方式。最好的办法是用介词或其它方式来把他 们分开 , 以便清楚表达它们的修饰关系。多个名词罗列的情况经常发生,下面多举一些例子.

  He wrote the quality control groupreports.

  宜改为:He wrote the reports of the quality control group.The patient showed chronic liver diseasesymptoms.

  宜改为:The patient showed symptoms of chronic liver disease.The human brain oxygen level is quite high.

  宜改为:Theoxygen level in human brain is quite high.Their specific inhibition producing effectson fat containing food intake were assessed.

  宜改为:Theirspecific effects of inhibition on the intake of fat containing food were assessed.The present investigation evaluated variousspecific drug sample combinations.

  宜改为:Thepresent investigation evaluated various combinations of specific drug samples

  9、句子的时态

  科技论文中基本上只用现在时和过去时两种时态.有的作者偶尔会使用完成时.完成时一般只用于多次并一直在研究的情况.其他的时态用得很少.论文中的时态有它特定的意义.时态用来表明科研成果的认知程度.

  当描述已发表的文献成果时,用现在时,因为已发表的成果被承认是事实.描述未发表的实验和结果时,用过去时,因为还没有得到承认,并且是写论文以前做的事情.由于科技论文中的时态的特定用法,写作中经常需要转换时态.一句话中都可能用两个时态.总起来说,Abstract中要讲述自己的实验和结论,要用过去时.Introduction中要总结文献和问题 ,以现在时为主,也用一些过去时.Methods和 Results都是讲自己的实验和结果,用过去时.而 Discussion中则需要根据描述文献还是自己的实验,需要交换使用现在时和过去时 .

  在引述文献结果时,过去发表的结论可以认为是已经被承认的事实,应该用现在时.但引述过去的实验时,特别是以作者为主语时,因是过去做的事情,应该用过去时.

  Wang showed that the rate of growth isdependent on temperature.Smith studied the growth rate and reportedthat it is dependent on temperature.

  若作者不是主语 , 而作者的研究是主语时,用现在时.

  Investigation by Wang shows that the rateof growth is dependent on temperature.

  当描述自己的实验和实验结果时,应用过去时 . 因为是在写文章以前做的事情 , 并且还没被接受为事实 (发表) 。

  We measured its plasma concentration andfound that it was two times higher in obesity patients than in normalpopulation.

  讲述 table 或 figure 中显示的结果时,可以用现在时。

  Table 4 shows that growth was dependent ontemperature.

  计算的结果和统计分析结果应该用现在时。

  The calculated value is significantly lowerindicating most of the dissolved compound was degraded.

  10、主动句和被动句

  许多人认为科技论文都应该用被动句,不要加入个性的成分 . 现在越来越多的杂志提倡使用 主动句 , 因为主动句更简洁和明确 . 把 “ it is reported by the authors of this paper that” 改为“We reported that”就显得更简要和直接。下面是个例子:

  In 2002 we reported the synthesis ofanthramycin analogues and their DNA binding activities studied by gelelectrophoresis.

  但实验部分还是主要使用被动句 .用 “The drug concentration was measured by HPLC” 而一般不用“ We measured the drug concentration by HPLC”.

  11、标点符号的使用

  英文科技论文写作中经常使用的标点符号有逗号,句号和分号.冒号和问号使用的情况很少,而惊叹号几乎就不会被使用.现在分号使用的也逐渐减少,一般用句号取代.一篇论文中只是使用逗号和句号也是正常的.句号的使用比较明确,下面主要对逗号的使用作一些说明.逗号虽然很小,但要表达清楚你要传达的信息却离不开它.比如下面的例子,没有逗号时句子不好读.加逗号后,逗号放在不同的地方,意思完全不同。

  Although it was incubated at 50 ℃ for 24hours no reaction occurred.

  逗号是用来分开两个独立的句子,下面的句子是可以的.

  Ethanol is used to replace gasoline, and it is produced from corn.

  下面的句子就不合适 , 因为逗号后面不是一个完整的句子.

  Ethanol is used to replace gasoline, and isproduced from corn.

  当一个长的语句出现在句子的前面时,要用逗号分开 . 若语句不长 , 不需要停顿,也可以不用逗号.

  During the process of solvent removal, somecrystalline solid was formed.

  During the process precipitate was formed.

  12、数字的写法

  科技论文离不开数字 . 数字的一种写法是用英文字,如 three, thirteen. 另一种是写阿拉伯数字 . 具体用哪种写法可参照以下几个简

  单的规则.

  1 ) 少于 10 的整数用英文字,大于或等于 10 的数字用阿拉伯数字

  thee experiments

  one assay

  23 birds

  6,500 miles

  2 ) 有小数点和单位的数字用阿拉伯数字

  1.2 hours

  5 percent

  3 am

  Page 3

  3 )在句子开头的数字用英文字 

  英语的一个句子的开始是用大写字母来表明的 . 如果是一个数字 , 那就不能起到表示一个句子开始的作用 . 所以不能用数字开始一个句子 . 这时要把数字用英文字写出 , 或最好能修改句子,不用数字开头 . 一个经常被使用的办法是把表示数量的数字放到括号中去.

  10 ml ethanol was added.

  Ten ml ethanol was added.

  Ethanol (10 ml) was added.

  30 eggs were used daily during the study.

  宜改为:During the study, 30 eggs were used daily.

  4 ) 当两个数字前后并列出现时 , 一个要用英文字

  当两个数字前后并列出现时,若都写成数字或文字,容易产生混乱.

  three eight-rat groups to: three 8-ratsgroups

  3 8-rats groups to: three 8-rats groups

  two 5-day study

  12 two-engine airplanes

  5) 小于 1 的数字的单位用单数,大于 1 的数字的单位复数

  0.25 gram

  0.8 second

  1.5 grams

  3.45 seconds

  但是零后面的单位用复数.

  zero meters

  0 meters

  单位的缩写单数和复数是一样的。

  0.1 ml

  15 ml

  13、冠词的使用

  使用冠词是英语的特点,中文没有相应字词 . 对定冠词 the 和不定冠词 a 、an 的使用往往掌握不好,最常见的是漏掉.

  There has been increase in loss ofagricultural land.

  宜改为:There has been an increase in the loss of agricultural land.

  Stresses at various locations in crank arecalculated by using sets of unit load cases applied to single throw FE model.

  宜改为:Stressesat various locations in the crank are calculated by using sets of unit loadcases applied to a single throw FE model.

  再就是定冠词 the用多了.

  The alcohol is produced by the fermentationof the grains like corn and wheat.

  宜改为:Alcoholis produced by the fermentation of grains like corn and wheat.

  Alcohol 和 grains 都是泛指 , 不需要加定冠词the。

  除了是第一个字,题目中的冠词不要大写.

  The Dependence of Crystal Growth on the Solvents.

  14、同位词的使用

  写作中有时需要对新引述的事物或概念做简单解释和描述,但单写一个句子又会打断前后的连接 .这时用同位词来解释是一个经常使用的方式。

  The Hallervorden – Spatz syndrome, aneurological disorder associated with iron accumulation, has been linked to adecline in cysteine dioxygenase activity.

  同位词应该同修饰的事物等位,说明是什么 ,而不能用来解释要修饰的事物的性质 .下面句子中的同位词的使用就不合适.

  Penicillin, not stable in water , wasdeveloped during WWII.

  15、多余的用词

  The supernatant was collected andconcentrated in vacuum to evaporate the solvent.

  Concentrate 就是 evaporate the solvent ,后面的 to evaporate the solvent 是多余的.类似的把一些词的含义再次重复说明是最容易出现的多余用词.类似的 8PM in the evening, blue in color, small in size, in vivo animal models, in vitro cell cultures 都有多余用词的情况。

  The results of activities of tested compoundswere listed in Table 1.

  Results 是多余的.中文中经常写作“ 实验结果”“ 活性检测结果”,但英文中“ 结果 ”是不需要翻译出来的.

  宜改为:The activities of tested compounds were listed in Table 1.

  下面的例句中, their 就是 acid B and D ,二者要去掉一个。

  The chemical mechanisms of theirantioxidant activities of acid B and D were not well understood.

  宜改为:Thechemical mechanisms of the antioxidant activities of acid B and D were not wellunderstood.

  一些词组,如 it should be mentioned, it should be pointed out, it was found, it was determined, … 都是冗长和委婉地说法,应该直接说明。 

  科学自由共享,人人平等,共求真理

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