根据How to Write a Successful Science Thesis (Wiley-VCH)一书p. 98, "Experimental work is by definition a journey into the unknown, fraught with detours and dead ends, but all such obstacles are basically irrelevant from a scientific standpoint. Look upon your dissertation--as you would any other research report--not as a memoir documenting and explaining your every activity, but instead as a proclamation of a set of new insights. How you achieved your results may perhaps play some role in your mentor's appraisal of your efforts, but otherwise it will be of interest only to the extent that certain intimate details may be critical from a methodological standpoint."
2)少用陈词滥调。很多很多所谓写作秘诀的网上资料都提供一些句法，但是其实很多都是陈词滥调，不提供任何信息，可以高度精简。以下是我给一篇文章审稿的片断意见：" Another reason on why this paper is long and somewhat distracting is that you frequently use words such as "It was found that" (p. 2), "It is worth noting that…" (p. 7), "It was observed that …" (p. 8), "It was observed that…" (p. 9), "It was noted that…" (p. 12), "We observed that…" (of course, it's you who make the observation!), "It was noticed that" (p. 13), "It was interesting to see that…", "It was observed that…", "It was concluded that" (p. 15), "It was found that (p. 17)".”
有时候用了陈词滥调反而帮了倒忙。以下是我给另外一篇文章的审稿意见片断：" Throughout the text, for two or three times (e.g., line 11 of p. 12), the authors always wrote "it is not surprising that...". The intention of the authors was to justify their data, to say that their data are "normal". However, if the authors always say "it is not surprising", why should the reader care unsurprising results? Isn't it better to use "it is justified that..." or "it is reasonable that..."?”
为了证明我说的这些是有道理的，我举How to Write a Successful Science Thesis (Wiley-VCH)一书p. 39,"Avoid sentences that are unnecessarily complex and entangled, or run on interminably. Problems of the latter sort often have their origin in 'that' constructions:
Example 4-8: It is well established that... (of course!)
One can assume that... (presumably!)
From this result it follows that... (= thus, hence, therefore)
We must not take it for granted that ... (= unlikely)
Note that the examples above are followed in parentheses by a word or words with the potential to head the offending sentence off in a more promising direction. Sometimes a single well-chosen word is able to replace an entire phrase, simultaneously eliminating the need for at least one punctuation mark. Equally important, a remodeling in this sense often permits the true message of the sentence to migrate from an awkward subordinate clause to the main clause, where it belongs."
3) 写文章不能用讨审稿人打的时髦语，不能任意吹嘘夸大影响。比如有的人说自己的实验设计是"beautiful"，实验结果是"amazing", "remarkable"，自己的催化剂是“超级稳定”，自己的薄膜是“超级薄”，在引言部分说自己的课题是“公众都注意的北极星”，这样必然招打。很简单，什么是“超级稳定”的定义?最稳定就是转化率一直100%不变，那么“超级稳定”究竟超级到什么程度?什么叫“超级薄”?最薄就一个原子的大小，“超级薄”能比一个原子还小吗?
Communicating Science: A Practical Guide一书p. 50, "Hype tends to creep in naturally under the pen. A good characterization of hype is overindulgence in adjectives. Just like overindulging in sweets leads to obesity, accumulating adjectives bloats a text, makes it bottom-heavy and turns it into failure." p. 26, "I am not telling you to shy from waving your flag. Advertising is definitely involved in the writing of an introduction, but the softest of touches is needed. One-upmanship can be very distructive."
The Elements of Styles(插图版)一书p. 106, "Do not overstate. When you overstate, readers will be instantly on guard, and everything that has preceded your overstatement as well as everything that follows it will be suspect in their minds because they have lost confidence in your judgment or your poise. Overstatement is one of the common faults. A single overstatement, wherever or however it occurs, diminishes the whole, and a single carefree superlative has the power to destroy, for readers, the objective of your enthusiasm."
4) 鼓励恰当地用主动语气。以前很多老师都说写科研论文要用被动语气。其实，大家去读Chemical Communications杂志，每一篇文章都读，发现大多数的三页文章里面至少有几个主动句，有的有十几个主动句。什么情况用被动句，什么情况用主动句?答案是大多数情况用被动句，特别是描述实验方法。但是有的情况下用主动句有画龙点睛的效果。仔细读Chemical Communications杂志，发现的常见主动句是"Herein, we report...", "We propose that..", "To further check/demonstrate this hypothesis, we designed further experiment by...", "We believe that...", "To see whether ... is due to..., we did further experiments...".可见主动句有几种，第一种是在引言中说我们发现了什么;第二中是说我们认为什么，是提建议的;第三种是说为了证明什么，我们做了进一步的实验。有了这些主动句，文章就更加神采飞扬了。
为了说明我的话是合理的，我举How to Write a Successful Science Thesis (Wiley-VCH)一书p. 37,"We urge you in general, as often as you can, to incorporate lively verbs into your writing. Trt to take as much advantages as you can of sentence structures rooted in the active voice, which is the most welcoming environment for 'words of action'. Few world dispute the assertion, however, that passive constructions rarely contribute in a positive way to descriptive prose."
p. 84, "It has become increasingly common in published scientific works to encounter examples of first-person verb forms, which unquestionably add life to their surroundings. Note that this development carries an important inplication, however: the authors responsible are suggesting in a subtle way that the parties involved in conducting a scholarly investigation may themselves play a more than passive role:
Examples 10-7 ... This being the case, we elected to...
... We therefore separated (introduced, heated)..
... In the hope of conferring antimalarial activity on pharmaceutical precursors, we prepared..."
5) 注意段落的长度和结构，注意起承转合、行云流水、收发自如!读间行打印的原始稿件，如果一段话占据一页，就太长了。一般6-15行是正常范围。How to Write a Successful Science Thesis (Wiley-VCH)一书p. 39,"In general, paragraphs should probably not exceed about a third of a page, equivalent to perhaps four to eight sentences. Paragraphs make an important contribution to the intellectual structure of a document, quite apart from the fact that they break up an otherwise 'endless stream of text', which is unsightly and inflicts too much organizational burden on the reader."
"Structuring a document as a series of coherent paragraphs forces the author to sort out and present his or her thoughts in a logical fashion. That is to say, a proper paragraph is dedicated to exploring a single subject or thought, which in principle could easily be articulated in a brief descriptive title."
"The first sentence in every paragraph warrants special attention. One of its principle functions is to let the reader know what the ensuing discussion is about, for which reason it is often referred to as the "topic sentence". The corresponding topic is then pursued in sentences that immediately follow, with the final sentence in the paragraph so crafted that if supplies a bridge to the next paragraph."
6) 文章要写得花妙，还得注意结尾部分。就是说，文章写到最后，不能嘎然而止，而要说清楚本文的意义、对这个领域的贡献、本文的局限性和下一步可以怎么做。这样，读起来有意犹未尽的感觉。How to Write a Successful Science Thesis (Wiley-VCH)一书p. 102，"Near the end of your discussion you may want to be bold and suggest interesting avenues for future exploration: promising approaches to resolving remaining uncertainties, ideas for broadening the scope of a methodology you have developed, or ways of possibly refining your results. If so, be sure the suggestions you make are concrete."
Hydrocarbon Chain Growth on V(100) Single-Crystal Surfaces via Vinyl Intermediates(p 6583-6585)
Min Shen, Francisco Zaera
Published Online: Jul 23 2008 2:14AM